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Training properly


Olympic Training Macrocycle

Training properly,highly qualified canoe training is a complex process,but it is subject to the general regulations.It must be consistent with the rules of the athlete psycho-physical development,consistent with the requirements of canoeing and social realites.

In training,we aim to improve the canoe:

- endurance/general and special/,

- strenght/general and special/,

- speed,

- motor coordination.

Highly developed motor characteristics at a particular athlete somatic site allow you to adjust the technique,and then allow the athlete to develop an individual style of paddling.

Adapting to stress mechanisms and systems thet occur during compensatory efforts,fluctuations in homeostasis require increased training stimuli.Mainly in this area can be planned training loads.The principal competents of the training properly are proper exercises,work and rest.

In order to obtain higher performance sports training loads are increasing and changing training resources,training methods and different exercises.As a result of the physiological conditions is essential alternation of load and rest and training content differentiation.

We distinquish between technical training/specialist and targeted/and supplementary training/other training resources/.In technical training we use training resources to prepare special/paddlind a kayak/and training measures targeted/kayak paddling in the pool,training for trainers and the use of special machines imitating.In use supplementary training funds targeted resources and preparation of comprehensive measures.

The technical special training resources are:- rate paddling different sections of fractional distance of the start and full distances,- continuous long-distance paddling,- paddling in different water areas with variable flow water,- rate paddling different sections of fractional distance of the start and full distances an additional load/internal or external/.The targeted technical training we use the duration and intensity each exercise,or other methods of monitoring.

The supplementary training in specific measures targeted training/strenght,running and swimming/ use relative to the start distances,duration,exercise intensity,imitation of movement and work rhythm.

The supplementary training funds are preparing comprehensive strenght training,running,cross-country skiing,swimming,gymnastics,acrobatics and sports games.

Training loads are carried out using a variety of training methods used.Training method called the way forward coach with the athlete,in order to achieve specific objectives throught specific actions.With the help of the method used to change the athlete's level of fitness.

In terms of physiology methods can be divided into:aerobic,anaerobic and mixed.

Training methods differ from one another due to:the impact on the body,intensity,number of repetitions,the amount and duration of the series.

In practice,the training methods are used:a continuous variable,interval method,start method and modified to suit individuals needs.

In perfecting the techniques we use the following methods:analitical/motion elements/,synthetic/holistic/ and complex.

Load alternation occurs is in the applied cycles of training.

The main training cycles are 4-year Olympic Macrocycles.Differ in scale load.For young athletes,for which the projected four-year planned outcome changes by 10% and the load cycle will be 50% load scheme is used,

5 : 2 : 1.

For Champions of Sport,the planned four-year forecast result in changes by 5% of the cycle scheme is used,the load 3 : 2 : 1.

Yearly Training Cycle

Yearly Training Cycle is an essential Macro-Olympic cycle in which its activities are planned training load.This load is expected from the Main Event/World Championship,European or National Champioship/ back by BPS mesocycle and on the preceding preparatory mesocycles/Pre-Start Period and Preparatory Period.


The Yearly Training Cycle to schedule one or more start periods.In many National Canoe Federation used is modern Yearly Training Cycle two Main Starts.The first in May/loss in the World Cup or the European Championship/,the second Main Start in July or August/Olympic Games or World Championship/.

Training load regardless of the structure and purpose of the Yearly Training Cycle conducted in accordance with the load scheme planned.

5 : 2 : 1

This scheme is based on the use of an 8-mesocycle Yearly Training Cycle.Five accumulation mesocycles,two intensification mesocycles and transormation mesocycle.

I - Mesocycle,Introductory,II - Mesocycle,Comprehensive Preparation,III - Mesocycle,Special Efficiency Preparation,IV - Mesocycle,Technical-Efficiency Preparation,V - Mesocycle,First Start Period,VI - Mesocycle,Second Special Efficiency Preparation,VII - Mesocycle,Second Technical-Efficiency Preparation,VIII - Mesocycle,Second Start Period.

Adapted load scheme is also the basis for planning an 8-microcycles BPS/Directly Start Preparation/.


A,A,A,A,A,  II,    P/Start/

Years of experience in canoeing,observation and analysis of the burden in other sports of a similar cource of training load helped develop a theoretical model of the cource of training load in the Yearly Training Cycle.

PREPARATING MESOCYCLES <------------ BPS <------------ START

2 <------ 3 <------ 2 x BPS           3 <------ 2 x Start

Training Mesocycles

Training Mesocycle is average cykle a standard built with 4-12 Training Microcycles.In training mesocycles,as in the other cycles of the wave alternation is used in cource of loading.

We can highlight training mesocycles:accumulation,intensification and transformation.

The load determines the content of training accents in different training microcycles of the training mesocycle.

These are training microcykles:

accumulation,intesification and transformation.


A, A, I, P[2/3A +START]

The main training mesocycle determining the high result of the Main Event is specific 6-8 training microcycles BPS/Directly Start Preparation/mesocycle.

Training Microcycles

Training Microcycle is the smallest cycle affecting athlete psycho-physical development.It consists of 3-7 days of training/training/ cource wave of planned training load/work-rest/.

In training practice these training microcycles are calendar days of weeks.

There is a relation ship between



the numbers of days of training in training microcycle,and the size of the psycho-physical changes in the athlete body.



In particular training microcycles/accumulation,intensification and transformation/ depending on the period a special cource of training load is used.



In each of these microcycles there is a waveform of the training load varies depending on the training period and

the loads applied on the training days.


In the following days of training microcycle is also the alternation measure of training.

This is particularly true of training measures used in Supplementary Training/strenght training,endurance training and general motor coordination training/.

After big training loads,mainly in the volume component must always be followed by more rest.


Wave form analysis training load in each training cycles can improve further training plans and to verify validity of the applied loads,methods and means of training.

Training load is registed in five major areas:aerobic,special aerobic,acid-anaerobic,phospho-anaerobic and anabolic/phosphocreatine/.The level of energy resources and development of energy processes determines the athlete's performance in the individual competitions in camoeing.

Training Day

Training Day is the athlete directly affecting the Training Process element.From his place in training microcycle during a certain period depends on the type and size of training load.These training days:accumulation,intensification and transformation and loads:low,medium,high,very high and extreme.

On training day training loads may be implemented as one or more trainings/once,twice or three times a day/ or complex training/together/.

In connection with the alterability traininigs accent and training resources are the days of training including:- technical training and strenght training,- technical training and running training and - technical training with coordination training.This is a training practice,it is reasonable to combine speed trainings and endurance speed trainings with strenght training or coordination trainings and special aerobic endurance training or general aerobic endurance training with other measures in the enduance field.

Depending on the stage of the training,and the level of training can be used different systems training load:

O1, O1 + O1, O1 + O2, O1 + O3, O2 + O1,--------> and another.

O1 - low load

O2 - medium load

O3 - high load

One possibility for calculating training loads and its registration is the use of reduced minutes. This is a record of training load H /seconds,minutes,hours so-called,reducet -t'/.

H is directly proportional to the time of the training volume and is directly proportional to its intensiti.

H[t'] = O[t]  x  I[%]-------->60 min. x 85% = 51'/reduced/

To differentiate the training load ranges recorded,special labeling for example:

anaerobic - 0.30'00''

special aerobic - 0.45'00''

aerobic - 0.60'00''